In Ayurveda, all diseases of eye are mentioned under the specialized branch called Shalakya Tantra. Many of highly potent therapeutic treatment procedures are described under this heading. The aim of all treatment procedures is to prevent the degenerative process and to restore the vision. The procedures involve in the treatment of various eye diseases are called as Netrakryakalpa i.e sekam (nethradhara), anjanam,aschotana, tharpana, putapaka etc. helps to correct the metabolism of the cells and to stimulate the regeneration of the retinal cells and optic nerves.
*Pouring of thin streams of medicated solution over the Kaneenaksandhi (nasal canthus) continuously, from height of 4 angulas (5-6 inches) for a stipulated period of 2-3minutes in each eye or the effected eye. This procedure helps to do clean the channels (Srotas) of the eye and do the aam pachana (detoxification at the cellular level).
* If there is involvement of vata or kapha along with pitta the medicine is used in Luke warm temperature. In pitta predominant diseases the medicine is to be cooled below body temperature.
* Drugs used :decoction prepared from different parts of the plants.
* Application of medicaments in the form of paste into the conjunctival fornices with an applicator (salaka).
* Salaka is a rod like device 8-10 inches long with blunt ends.
* It is a procedure in which the medicine is applied in the form of collerium.
* Anjanam is a method which has a broad spectrum of application in the field of opthalmology . it can be used as a treatment and also as a preventve measure.
* Drug used: Compound drugs prepared out of metals,minerals and herbs.
* Instillation of few (8-10drops) medicaments prepared out of leaves, bark, fruit etc. The medicine should be in liquid form.
* Aschothana is advised in the early stage of all eye diseases. This is taken as adyaupakrama.
* The prepared medicine is applied in the kaneenak sandhi from a convenient height of 1 to 2 inches.
* Drugs used: fresh- amruta, durva, sheegru, bhumyaamlaki, etc.
* The decoction should be neither concentrated nor diluted (p h nearer to 6.6-7.4)and it should not be too hot or too cold.
* The highly powerful procedure which rejuvenates the eyes.The paste of gram is applied around the eyes which gives the appearance of a well. The medicated ghee is then poured in the eyes for a time described according to the diseased condition. The active ingredients of the ghee medicine start the regeneration process and the vision is restored.
* Drugs used :Ghee and oil prepared out of herbal drugs (triphala, jeevanti, patola, jeevaniya gana,milk,etc.) Putapaka .
* Keeping the medicaments prepared out of plant extracts, fats and certain metals and minerals for stipulated period (3-5 minutes), making concentric boundary around the orbit.
* Normally putapaka is done after tharpana.
* After tharpanam the srothas of eye is filled tharpanam ghriham so the putapaka is ment to fecilitate the absorption and assimilation.
* It is indicated in all conditions where tharpan is advised.
* Patient is made to lie on the dhara table. Medicated oil is poured on the forehead continuously for about a period of 45 min. This process gives strength to the nervous system and increases the blood circulation of the optic nerves. It is also effective in many degenerative diseases of the brain like paralysis, cerebral atrophy, parkinson’s disease and degenerative diseases of nervous system. Medicated oils, milk, buttermilk mixed with medicated decoctions are used.
* This procedure is more powerful than sirodhara. Medicine is kept inside a leather bag fitted around the head at a bearable temperature for a prescribed time. It also acts very effectively in all degenerative diseases of the nervous system.
* This is a procedure in which medicated oil is poured in both the nostrils empty stomach. The toxins accumulated in the areas above the neck are brought out via this route. Nostrils are the doors to the brain according to Ayurveda classics.